Saturday, 21 January 2012

20 Linux Server Hardening Security Tips-2

#11: Configure Iptables and TCPWrappers

Iptables is a user space application program that allows you to configure the firewall (Netfilter) provided by the Linux kernel. Use firewall to filter out traffic and allow only necessary traffic. Also use the TCPWrappers a host-based networking ACL system to filter network access to Internet. You can prevent many denial of service attacks with the help of Iptables:

#12: Linux Kernel /etc/sysctl.conf Hardening

/etc/sysctl.conf file is used to configure kernel parameters at runtime. Linux reads and applies settings from /etc/sysctl.conf at boot time. Sample /etc/sysctl.conf:
# Turn on execshield
# Enable IP spoofing protection
# Disable IP source routing
# Ignoring broadcasts request
# Make sure spoofed packets get logged
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1

#13: Separate Disk Partitions

Separation of the operating system files from user files may result into a better and secure system. Make sure the following filesystems are mounted on separate partitions:
  • /usr
  • /home
  • /var and /var/tmp
  • /tmp
Create septate partitions for Apache and FTP server roots. Edit /etc/fstab file and make sure you add the following configuration options:
  1. noexec - Do not set execution of any binaries on this partition (prevents execution of binaries but allows scripts).
  2. nodev - Do not allow character or special devices on this partition (prevents use of device files such as zero, sda etc).
  3. nosuid - Do not set SUID/SGID access on this partition (prevent the setuid bit).
Sample /etc/fstab entry to to limit user access on /dev/sda5 (ftp server root directory):
/dev/sda5  /ftpdata          ext3    defaults,nosuid,nodev,noexec 1 2

#13.1: Disk Quotas

Make sure disk quota is enabled for all users. To implement disk quotas, use the following steps:
  1. Enable quotas per file system by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
  2. Remount the file system(s).
  3. Create the quota database files and generate the disk usage table.
  4. Assign quota policies.
  5. See implementing disk quotas tutorial for further details.

#14: Turn Off IPv6

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) provides a new Internet layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite that replaces Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and provides many benefits. Currently there are no good tools out which are able to check a system over network for IPv6 security issues. Most Linux distro began enabling IPv6 protocol by default. Crackers can send bad traffic via IPv6 as most admins are not monitoring it. Unless network configuration requires it, disable IPv6 or configure Linux IPv6 firewall:

#15: Disable Unwanted SUID and SGID Binaries

All SUID/SGID bits enabled file can be misused when the SUID/SGID executable has a security problem or bug. All local or remote user can use such file. It is a good idea to find all such files. Use the find command as follows:
#See all set user id files:
find / -perm +4000
# See all group id files
find / -perm +2000
# Or combine both in a single command
find / \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -print
find / -path -prune -o -type f -perm +6000 -ls

You need to investigate each reported file. See reported file man page for further details.

#15.1: World-Writable Files

Anyone can modify world-writable file resulting into a security issue. Use the following command to find all world writable and sticky bits set files:
find /dir -xdev -type d \( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) -print
You need to investigate each reported file and either set correct user and group permission or remove it.

#15.2: Noowner Files

Files not owned by any user or group can pose a security problem. Just find them with the following command which do not belong to a valid user and a valid group
find /dir -xdev \( -nouser -o -nogroup \) -print
You need to investigate each reported file and either assign it to an appropriate user and group or remove it.


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